Increasingly faster, smaller and cheaper - these are the three key factors driving technologies that make up, and will continue to make up, the nano-world and all the products that are derived from it. Specifically, in the field of microelectronics, the self-fulfilling power of Moore’s Law has driven an amazing pace of technological advance in our ability to construct increasingly dense patterns of circuit components and devices on computer chip wafers.
Lithography (from the Greek meaning to write with stone) was originally named for the technique of printing using stone, and then metal, plates that revolutionized modern communications. Today it is an extremely complex tool – and is still based on the concept of “imprinting” an original template version onto mass output – originally using relatively simple optical exposure, masking, and etching techniques, and now extended to include exposure to X-rays, high energy UV light, and electron beams – in processes developed to manufacture everyday products including those in the realms of consumer electronics, telecommunications, entertainment, and transportation to name but a few. In the last few years, using multidisciplinary techniques, researchers and engineers have pushed the envelope of fields including optics, physics, chemistry, mechanics and fluidics, and this book provides an overview and selected in-depth coverage of the most important advances and applications that make up the state of the art.
The key technologies and approaches, from masking and the use of polymer resists to exposure wavelength management and reduction – and especially how mastery of the effects of diffraction phenomena has advanced the field – are examined, and all the most important and up-to-date tools are fully covered, including remaining challenges and possible solutions. Important topics include the development of focused ion beam (FIB) technology, nano-printing, use of self-assembly techniques, and the possibilities of stacked, or 3D lithography.
Written for engineers or researchers who may be new to the field, this book will be helpful for many readers (including students and non-specialists) in completing their knowledge on a collection of technologies which are now undergoing a permanent and rapid state of evolution.
1. Photolithography, Philippe Bandelier, Anne-Laure Charley and Alexandre Lagrange.
2. Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, Maxime Besacier, Christophe Constancias and Jean-Yves Robic.
3. Electron Beam Lithography, Christophe Constancias, Stefan Landis, Serdar Manakli, Luc Martin, Laurent Pain and David Rio.
4. Focused Ion Beam Direct-Writing, Jacques Gierak.
5. Charged Particle Optics, Peter Hawkes.
6. Lithography resists, Amandine Jouve, Michael May, Isabelle Servin and Julia Simon.
Stefan Landis works at CEA-LETI-Minatec in Grenoble, France. He also gives lectures on next generation lithography in many engineering schools in France and also in CEI-Europe Advanced Technology Education.