Evolving Concepts

SCIENCES – Oceanography and Marine Ecology


Guy Jacques, Consultant, France
Paul Tréguer, European Institute - Marine Studies (IUEM), France
Herlé Mercier, Consultant, France

ISBN : 9781789450033

Publication Date : April 2021

Hardcover 308 pp

165.00 USD



Since the HMS Challenger expedition of 1872–1876, our vision of the ocean has changed completely. We now understand that it plays a key role in biodiversity, climate regulation, and mineral and biological resources, and as such, the ocean is a major service provider for humanity.

Oceans draws on data from new oceanographic and satellite tools, acquired through international interdisciplinary programs. It describes the processes that control how the ocean functions, on different spatial and temporal scales.

After considering the evolution of concepts in physical, chemical and biological oceanography, the book outlines the future of a warmer, acidified, less oxygenated ocean. It shows how a view of the ocean at different scales changes how we understand it. Finally, the book presents the challenges facing the ocean in terms of the exploitation of biological and mineral resources, in the context of sustainable development and the regulation of climate change.


1. The Challenger Expedition: The Birth of Oceanography.
2. From Physical Oceanography to Ocean–Atmosphere Interactions.
3. From Chemistry to Marine Biogeochemistry.
4. From Marine Biology to Biological Oceanography.
5. Anoxia and Chemosynthesis.
6. A Warmer, More Acidified and Less Oxygenated Ocean.
7. The Ocean at High Resolution.
8. Challenges for the Ocean.

About the authors/editors

Guy Jacques, a planktologist, launched the French program to study the pelagic environment of the Southern Ocean. He has chaired scientific committees at Ifremer and Orstom.

Paul Tréguer, a marine biogeochemist, led international and European programs on the impacts of global change on the ocean. He is the founder of the European Institute for Marine Studies (IUEM) and of Europole Mer.

Herlé Mercier, a marine physicist, is interested in observing the variability of water masses in the North Atlantic from a forecasting perspective. He has chaired the MISTRALS Evaluation Committee and the scientific council of the IPEV.