In 2016, an individual in a technologically developed country encountered digital systems an average of 218 times a day. It is predicted that in 2025, this average will rise to 4,700! The global volume of data produced was estimated to have reached 16.1 zettabytes in 2016; by 2025, this figure could rise to 163 zettabytes.
Evidently, a sum of data as great as this influences human activities and contributes to the digitization of our environment. The traces that we produce daily on digital systems reveal our choices, orientations, preferences, etc. They show our movements, purchases and actions in real-time and, little by little, they draw our digital identity.
The formalism of the algorithmic projections of an individual precisely describes the constitutive elements of their digital reflection. A projective approach allows us to define the new concepts of a place on a ubiquitous level, and the algorithmic consent of a user. When they are fictional or simulated, algorithmic projections often form the basis of destructive cyberattacks.
1. From the Philosophy of Trace to Digital Traces.
2. Formalism Associated with Algorithmic Projections.
3. Connected Objects, a Location’s Ubiquity Level and the User’s Algorithmic Consent.
4. On the Value of Data and Algorithmic Projection.
5. False Data and Fictitious Algorithmic Projections.
6. High-impact Cyber-operations Built on Fictitious Algorithmic Projections.
7. Prospective Epilogue: Global Algorithmic Projection and NBIC Convergence.
Thierry Berthier is Maître de conférences in Mathematics at the University of Limoges, France. He is a Researcher in cybersecurity and cyber defense at the Chaire Saint-Cyr and an Associate Researcher at CREC Saint-Cyr, France.
Bruno Teboul is the co-founder of the Chaire Data Scientist at the Ecole Polytechnique, France, and is an Associate Researcher at the University of Technology of Compiègne, France.
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