Any time objects and their (self-)organization are to be put into use, their models and methods of thinking as well as their designing and manufacturing need to be reinvented.
4D printing is a future technology that is capable of bringing 3D objects to life. This ability, which gives objects the power to change shape or properties over time through energy stimulation from active materials and additive manufacturing, makes it possible to envisage technological breakthroughs while challenging the relationship between people and objects.
4D Printing 1 presents the different facets of this technology, providing an objective, critical and even disruptive viewpoint to enable its existence and development, and to stimulate the creative drive that industry, society and humanity need in the perpetual quest for evolution and transformation.
1. Is 4D Printing Disruptive or Incremental, or a Bit of Both?
2. Is there External Creativity to Support 4D Printing?
3. Who would Prevail Today from Lamarck or Darwin to Help the Controlled Evolution of 4D Printing?
4. Toward a Possibly Programmable Self-Organization?
Frédéric Demoly is a Full Professor at UTBM, France, and a department director at the CNRS (French National Center for Scientific Research). His research focuses on design for 4D printing using computational intelligence, and on multi-material additive manufacturing processes.
Jean-Claude André is a Research Director at the CNRS and Professor Emeritus at the University of Lorraine, France. He is developing research on new 3D processes and works alongside Frédéric Demoly on 4D printing.
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