Committee login






Small thumbnail

Baidu SEO

Challenges and Intricacies of Marketing in China

Small thumbnail

Asymmetric Alliances and Information Systems

Issues and Prospects

Small thumbnail

Technicity vs Scientificity

Complementarities and Rivalries

Small thumbnail

Freshwater Fishes

250 Million Years of Evolutionary History

Small thumbnail

Biostatistics and Computer-based Analysis of Health Data using SAS

Biostatistics and Health Science Set

Small thumbnail

Predictive Control

Small thumbnail

Fundamentals of Advanced Mathematics 1

Categories, Algebraic Structures, Linear and Homological Algebra

Small thumbnail

Swelling Concrete in Dams and Hydraulic Structures

DSC 2017

Small thumbnail

The Chemostat

Mathematical Theory of Microorganims Cultures

Small thumbnail

Earthquake Occurrence

Short- and Long-term Models and their Validation

Small thumbnail

Formalizing Natural Languages

The NooJ Approach

Max Silberztein, International NooJ Association

ISBN: 9781848219021

Publication Date: January 2016   Hardback   346 pp.

130.00 USD

Add to cart




This book is at the very heart of linguistics. It provides the theoretical and methodological framework needed to create a successful linguistic project.
Potential applications of descriptive linguistics include spell-checkers, intelligent search engines, information extractors and annotators, automatic summary producers, automatic translators, and more. These applications have considerable economic potential, and it is therefore important for linguists to make use of these technologies and to be able to contribute to them.
The author provides linguists with tools to help them formalize natural languages and aid in the building of software able to automatically process texts written in natural language (Natural Language Processing, or NLP).
Computers are a vital tool for this, as characterizing a phenomenon using mathematical rules leads to its formalization. NooJ a linguistic development environment software developed by the author is described and practically applied to examples of NLP.


1. Introduction: the Project.
2. Formalizing the Alphabet.
3. Defining Vocabulary.
4. Electronic Dictionaries.
5. Languages, Grammars, and Machines.
6. Regular Grammars.
7. Context-Free Grammars.
8. Context-Sensitive Grammars.
9. Unrestricted Grammars.
10. Text Annotation Structure.
11. Lexical Analysis.
12. Syntactic Analysis.
13. Transformational Analysis.

About the Authors

Max Silberztein is President of the International NooJ Association. His research focuses on computational linguistics and language formalization.


DownloadTable of Contents - PDF File - 174 Kb

0.01700 s.