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Secure Connected Objects

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Banach, Fréchet, Hilbert and Neumann Spaces

Analysis for PDEs Set Volume 1

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Semi-Markov Migration Models for Credit Risk

Stochastic Models for Insurance Set Volume 1

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Human Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields

From Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) to Radio Frequency

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Enterprise Interoperability


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Data Treatment in Environmental Sciences

Multivaried Approach

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From Pinch Methodology to Pinch-Exergy Integration of Flexible Systems

Thermodynamics Energy, Environment, Economy Set

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Exterior Algebras

Elementary Tribute to Grassmann's Ideas

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Nonlinear Theory of Elastic Plates

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Cognitive Approach to Natural Language Processing

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Formalizing Natural Languages

The NooJ Approach

Max Silberztein, International NooJ Association

ISBN: 9781848219021

Publication Date: January 2016   Hardback   346 pp.

130.00 USD

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This book is at the very heart of linguistics. It provides the theoretical and methodological framework needed to create a successful linguistic project.
Potential applications of descriptive linguistics include spell-checkers, intelligent search engines, information extractors and annotators, automatic summary producers, automatic translators, and more. These applications have considerable economic potential, and it is therefore important for linguists to make use of these technologies and to be able to contribute to them.
The author provides linguists with tools to help them formalize natural languages and aid in the building of software able to automatically process texts written in natural language (Natural Language Processing, or NLP).
Computers are a vital tool for this, as characterizing a phenomenon using mathematical rules leads to its formalization. NooJ a linguistic development environment software developed by the author is described and practically applied to examples of NLP.


1. Introduction: the Project.
2. Formalizing the Alphabet.
3. Defining Vocabulary.
4. Electronic Dictionaries.
5. Languages, Grammars, and Machines.
6. Regular Grammars.
7. Context-Free Grammars.
8. Context-Sensitive Grammars.
9. Unrestricted Grammars.
10. Text Annotation Structure.
11. Lexical Analysis.
12. Syntactic Analysis.
13. Transformational Analysis.

About the Authors

Max Silberztein is President of the International NooJ Association. His research focuses on computational linguistics and language formalization.


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