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Cognitive Approach to Natural Language Processing
As natural language processing spans many different disciplines, it is sometimes difficult to understand the contributions and the challenges that each of them presents. This book explores the special relationship between natural language processing and cognitive science, and the contribution of computer science to these two fields. It is based on the recent research papers submitted at the intern...
Reflexive Governance for Research and Innovative Knowledge
Responsible Research and Innovation Set – Volume 6
Too often, governance falls short of the ideals established through reflections on RRI. Yet, a reflexive governance model has emerged in recent years in scientific debates. This model tries to focus on the effects of actors’ commitment in shared cooperative actions so as to create the conditions for accumulating new knowledge through the collective experimentation of solutions. These reflexive mec...
The Hermeneutic Side of Responsible Research and Innovation
Responsible Research and Innovation Set – Volume 5
Responsible research and innovation (RRI) has become an intensely debated concept for shaping future science, technology and innovation. This book is dedicated to the first steps of emerging RRI debates. Its main message is that the object of responsibility must be extended: beyond scrutinizing the responsibility for possible consequences of new science and technology in a more distant future. It ...
Precautionary Principle, Pluralism and Deliberation
Science and Ethics
This volume tackles the burden of judgment and the challenges of ethical disagreements, organizes the cohabitation of scientific and ethical argumentations in such a way they find their appropriate place in the political decision. It imagines several forms of agreements and open ways of conflict resolution that are very different compared with ones of the majority of political philosophers and pol...
Collective Intelligence Development in Business
Diversity in business has always been a source of both benefits and challenges: “This person definitely has some good ideas, but I cannot work with them – they never see things in the same way!”.
Evidently, the expression of egos and of individual differences within a company can provoke a number of counter-productive issues, in a world where flexibility and efficiency are essential to performanc...
Brain-Computer Interfaces 2
Technology and Applications
Brain–computer interfaces (BCI) are devices which measure brain activity and translate it into messages or commands, thereby opening up many possibilities for investigation and application. This book provides keys for understanding and designing these multi-disciplinary interfaces, which require many fields of expertise such as neuroscience, statistics, informatics and psychology.
This second vo...
Natural Language Processing and Computational Linguistics 1
Speech, Morphology and Syntax
Natural language processing (NLP) is a scientific discipline which is found at the interface of computer science, artificial intelligence and cognitive psychology.
Providing an overview of international work in this interdisciplinary field, this book gives the reader a panoramic view of both early and current research in NLP. Carefully chosen multilingual examples present the state of the art of...
Brain–Computer Interfaces 1
Foundations and Methods
Brain–computer interfaces (BCI) are devices which measure brain activity and translate it into messages or commands, thereby opening up many investigation and application possibilities.
This book provides keys for understanding and designing these multi-disciplinary interfaces, which require many fields of expertise such as neuroscience, statistics, informatics and psychology.
This first volume,...
Collaborative Annotation for Reliable Natural Language Processing
Technical and Sociological Aspects
This book presents a unique opportunity for constructing a consistent image of collaborative manual annotation for Natural Language Processing (NLP).
NLP has witnessed two major evolutions in the past 25 years: firstly, the extraordinary success of machine learning, which is now, for better or for worse, overwhelmingly dominant in the field, and secondly, the multiplication of evaluation campaign...
Daily Knowledge Valuation in Organizations
Traceability and Capitalization
One of the major challenges for modern organizations is the management of individual and collective knowledge, which is at the root of specific practices designed to optimize knowledge acquisition, maintenance and application. There are, however, still a disproportionately low number of studies focused on the structure and nature of knowledge.
This book tackles the subject of daily knowledge: the...
Responsibility and Freedom
The Ethical Realm of RRI
Responsible Research and Innovation appears as a paradoxical frame, hard to conceptualize and difficult to apply.
If, on the one hand, research and innovation appear to follow logics blind to societal issues, on the other hand responsibility is still a blurred concept interpreted according to circumstances.
Different perspectives are implied in the RRI discourse which also renders its applicat...
Named Entities for Computational Linguistics
FOCUS Series in Cognitive Science
One of the challenges brought on by the digital revolution of the recent decades is the mechanism by which information carried by texts can be extracted in order to access its contents.
The processing of named entities remains a very active area of research, which plays a central role in natural language processing technologies and their applications. Named entity recognition, a tool used in info...
Responsibility and Contingency
Practical and conceptual, the Responsible Research and Innovation set of books contributes to the clarification of this new requirement for all sciences and technological innovation. It covers the multiple and international responsibilities, by using various philosophical resources, mostly discussing the following topics: ethics, contingency, normative economy, freedom, corporate social responsibi...
Formalizing Natural Languages
The NooJ Approach
This book is at the very heart of linguistics. It provides the theoretical and methodological framework needed to create a successful linguistic project.
Potential applications of descriptive linguistics include spell-checkers, intelligent search engines, information extractors and annotators, automatic summary producers, automatic translators, and more. These applications have considerable econo...
Information Systems for Knowledge Management
Knowledge management (KM) is the process of finding, distributing, and using knowledge about an organization effectively in a multi-disciplined approach.
Information Systems for Knowledge Management brings together leading authors in this field to discuss implementing KM through networks and information technology. Individual chapters cover various topics in the field, including assessing communi...
Games with a Purpose (GWAPs)
FOCUS Series in Cognitive Science and Knowledge Management
Games with a Purpose (GWAPs) make it possible to collect data or solve problems that are too complex or too costly in terms of means to be solved by machines.These fun activities, which represent a type of serious gaming, are delicate to design since they must be both appealing and useful.
This book presents and analyzes GWAPs with specific themes (biology, medicine, automatic language process...
Transfer and Management of Knowledge
Today, more and more academics and practitioners are seeking to understand how organizations manage their knowledge and intellectual capital in order to obtain more effective competitive advantages. Taking into account these issues, and in order to answer the concerns expressed by these professionals, this book looks to help them understand and implement the effective transfer and management of kn...
Logical Modeling of Biological Systems
Systems Biology is the systematic study of the interactions between the components of a biological system and studies how these interactions give rise to the function and behavior of the living system. Through this, a life process is to be understood as a whole system rather than the collection of the parts considered separately. Systems Biology is therefore more than just an emerging field: it re...
Comparable Corpora and Computer-assisted Translation
Computer-assisted translation (CAT) has always used translation memories, which require the translator to have a corpus of previous translations that the CAT software can use to generate bilingual lexicons. This can be problematic when the translator does not have such a corpus, for instance, when the text belongs to an emerging field. To solve this issue, CAT research has looked into the leveragi...
Design and Challenges
This book summarizes the main problems posed by the design of a man–machine dialogue system and offers ideas on how to continue along the path towards efficient, realistic and fluid communication between humans and machines. A culmination of ten years of research, it is based on the author’s development, investigation and experimentation covering a multitude of fields, including artificial intell...
Tools for Collaborative Decision-Making
FOCUS Series in Computer Engineering and Information Technology
Decision-making has evolved recently thanks to the introduction of information and communication technologies in many organizations, which has led to new kinds of decision-making processes, called “collaborative decision-making”, at the organizational and cognitive levels. This book looks at the development of the decision-making process in organizations. Decision-aiding and its paradigm of proble...
Decision-Making and Action
Making a decision, of any importance, is never simple. On the one hand, specialists in decision theory do not come within the reach of most policy makers and, secondly, there are very few books on pragmatic decision that are not purely anecdotal. In addition, there is virtually no book that provides a link between decision-making and action. This book provides a bridge between the latest results i...
The domain of Affective Computing, a term coined by Rosalind Picard in 1997, gathers together several scientific areas such as computer science, cognitive science, psychology, design and art. Human-machine interaction systems are no longer solely fast and efficient. They aim to offer to users affective experiences: the user’s affective state is detected and considered within the interaction; the s...
Qualitative Spatial and Temporal Reasoning
Qualitative reasoning about time and space is concerned with processing knowledge which is qualitative, rather than quantitative, in nature, such as: "event A happened before event B", or "the market place is located in front of the church". The domain has been explored extensively over the last two decades, especially in relation to its links to constraint-based reasoning in computer science.
The Semantic Sphere 1
Computation, Cognition and Information Economy
This book contains a philosophical justification and scientific explanation of a computable metalanguage called Information Economy Meta Language (IEML). This language is key to solving the semantic interoperability problem on the Web and to modeling future processes of collective intelligence online.
The new digital media offer us an unprecedented memory capacity, a ubiquitous communication cha...
Competitive Intelligence and Decision Problems
The development of research, teaching methods, and applications of competitive intelligence (economic intelligence) requires a strategic and transverse vision that accounts for related issues and disciplines. It is essential to integrate the role of culture in order to interpret the results.
Competitive Intelligence and Decision Problems details the various scientific issues related to competitiv...
Competitive Intelligence 2.0
Organization, Innovation and Territory
The recent “concept of 2.0", a consequence of "Web 2.0", discusses the emergence of a new style, emancipated from the Web, which finds applications in all areas of social activity: management, innovation, education , organization, territory, etc.
This book considers the implications of the changing paradigm for competitive, economic and territorial intelligence applied to innovation, value creat...
Semi-Supervised and Unsupervised Machine Learning
The book addresses the main topics and techniques used for the rapid design, adaptation, and improvement of high-performance statistical spoken language dialog systems. Over the past few years, statistical methods (or pattern recognition techniques) have been applied to many areas involving the processing and treatment of text data. Spoken language dialog systems are no exception. For example, au...
Digital Cognitive Technologies
Epistemology and the Knowledge Economy
Digital Cognitive Technologies is an interdisciplinary book which assesses the socio-technical stakes of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), which are at the core of the “Knowledge Society”. This book addresses eight major issues, analyzed by authors writing from a Human and Social Science and a Science and Technology perspective. The contributions seek to explore whether and how IC...
Sequential Decision-making Problems
Representation and Solution
Numerous formalisms have been designed to model and solve decision-making problems. Some formalisms, such as constraint networks, can express “simple” decision problems, while others take into account uncertainties (probabilities, possibilities...), unfeasible decisions, and utilities (additive or not).
In the first part of this book, we introduce a generic algebraic framework that encompasses a...
From Speech Physiology to Linguistic Phonetics
Communicating by speech is one of the most seemingly-natural activities for humans. However, despite its apparent obviousness and ease, speech production is a very complex task with multiple levels of organization transforming cognitive intent into a meaningful sequence of sounds.
This book aims to establish a bridge between the physiology of speech and linguistics. It provides a detailed account...
Distance and E-learning in Transition
Learning innovation, technology and social challenges
The rushed development of information and communication technologies and their impact on the world of learning in the last decade have profoundly changed the paradigms, scenarios and values at all levels of education.
The professionalization of tools and practices, in addition to the consolidation of academic and practical knowledge, has been a major continuing issue throughout these years. The a...
Concepts and Methods
This book gives an overview of the main results and methods in the formal study of the human decision process in the wider sense, trying to break down the barriers between the various disciplines, including psychology, economics and computer science, which have contributed to this topic in the past. It provides the reader with a state-of-the-art roadmap to the field of decision analysis.
Spoken Language Processing
Speech processing addresses various scientific and technological areas. It includes speech analysis and variable rate coding, in order to store or transmit speech. It also covers speech synthesis, especially from text, speech recognition, including speaker and language identification, and spoken language understanding. This book covers the following topics: how to realize speech production and per...