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Flash Memory Integration
Performance and Energy Considerations
4 zettabytes (4 billion terabytes) of data generated in 2013, 44 zettabytes predicted for 2020 and 185 zettabytes for 2025. These figures are staggering and perfectly illustrate this new era of data deluge. Data has become a major economic and social challenge. The speed of processing of these data is that of the weakest link in a computer system: the storage system. It is therefore crucial to opt...
Reliability Investigation of LED Devices for Public Light Applications
Durability, Robustness and Reliability of Photonic Devices Set
This book focuses on state-of-the-art GaN-based LED technology through the study of typical failure mechanisms in public lighting applications.
Across the different chapters, the reader will explore the tools and analyses involved in the study and application of a number of different LED devices. The authors review GaN-based LED technology by focusing on the main failure mechanisms targeting p...
Plasma Etching Processes for CMOS Device Realization
Plasma etching has long enabled the perpetuation of Moore's Law. Today, etch compensation helps to create devices that are smaller than 20 nm. But, with the constant downscaling in device dimensions and the emergence of complex 3D structures (like FinFet, Nanowire and stacked nanowire at longer term) and sub 20 nm devices, plasma etching requirements have become more and more stringent.
Now more ...
Energy Autonomy of Real-Time Systems
Energy Management in Embedded Systems Set
This book deals with a new problem, that of energy autonomy of a real-time system that feeds from a source of environmental energy. This involves investigating various issues related to the harvest of energy, its temporary storage and use in order to ensure sustainable autonomy while respecting the rules of performance in real time.
After two introductory chapters which deal with real-time comp...
Digital Electronics 3
This third volume in the comprehensive Digital Electronics series, which explores the basic principles and concepts of digital circuits, focuses on finite state machines. These machines are characterized by a behavior that is determined by a limited and defined number of states, the holding conditions for each state, and the branching conditions from one state to another. They only allow one trans...
Energy Autonomy of Batteryless and Wireless Embedded Systems
Numerous new applications of embedded systems are envisioned in the context of aeronautics, such as sensor deployment for flight tests or for structural health monitoring. However, the increasing burden of on-board cabling requires wireless solutions. Moreover, concerns such as safety or system lifetime preclude the use of electrochemical energy storage. Ambient energy capture, storage and managem...
Reliability, Robustness and Failure Mechanisms of LED Devices
Durability, Robustness and Reliability of Photonic Devices Set
The rapid growth of the use of optoelectronic technology in Information and Communications Technology (ICT) has seen a complementary increase in the performance of such technologies. As a result, optoelectronic technologies have replaced the technology of electronic interconnections. However, the control of manufacturing techniques for optoelectronic systems is more delicate than that of microelec...
The Wave Concept in Electromagnetism and Circuits
Theory and Applications
The Wave Concept Iterative Procedure (WCIP) method has found an increasing number of users within electromagnetic theory and applications to planar circuits, antennas and diffraction problems. This book introduces in detail this new formulation of integral methods, based on the use of a wave concept with two bounded operators, and applications in a variety of domains in electromagnetics. This ap...
Ultra Low Power Electronics and Adiabatic Solutions
The improvement of energy efficiency in electronics and computing systems is currently central to information and communication technology design; low-cost cooling, autonomous portable systems and functioning on recovered energy all need to be continuously improved to allow modern technology to compute more while consuming less. This book presents the basic principles of the origins and limits of ...
Digital Electronics 2
Sequential and Arithmetic Logic Circuits
As electronic devices become increasingly prevalent in everyday life, digital circuits are becoming even more complex and smaller in size. This book presents the basic principles of digital electronics in an accessible manner, allowing the reader to grasp the principles of combinational and sequential logic and the underlying techniques for the analysis and design of digital circuits. Providing a ...
Digital Electronics 1
Combinational Logic Circuits
The omnipresence of electronic devices in our everyday lives has been accompanied by the downscaling of chip feature sizes and the ever increasing complexity of digital circuits.
This book is devoted to the analysis and design of digital circuits, where the signal can assume only two possible logic levels. It deals with the basic principles and concepts of digital electronics. It addresses all as...
Nanoelectromechanical Systems (NEMS) are high-frequency mechanical systems which are fast and extremely sensitive at detecting minuscule forces or very low masses. These small devices are used to integrate electrical and mechanical functions on the nanoscale.
NEMS cover a large number of applications, ranging from signal processing to ultra-weak stimuli detection, and can form part of larger mic...
Plasma Etching Processes for Interconnect Realization in VLSI
This is the first of two books presenting the challenges and future prospects of plasma etching processes for microelectronics, reviewing the past, present and future issues of etching processes in order to improve the understanding of these issues through innovative solutions.
This book focuses on back end of line (BEOL) for high performance device realization and presents an overview of all et...
Power Electronics Applied to Industrial Systems and Transports 2
Power Converters and their Control
Power electronics is the study of switching semiconductor components in order to control the flow of electrical energy. On this basis, the concepts of source categories (voltage or current) and their potential reversibilities make it possible to apply a methodology for the synthesis of various kinds of converters.
In this volume, the author provides an overview of electronic power converters (DC/...
Power Electronics Applied to Industrial Systems and Transports 3
Switching Power Supplies
Some power converters are specifically designed for supplying various pieces of equipment (such as microprocessor boards) with a constant voltage. As a consequence, these filtering requirements involve the use of auxiliary passive components (coils and capacitors). This is one of the key parts of the subjects discussed in this book.
Moreover, this volume deals with other technical aspects of swit...
Power Electronics Applied to Industrial Systems and Transports 1
Synthetic Methodology to Converters and Components Technology
Power electronics is based on the switching operating mode of semiconductor components. On this basis, the concepts of type (voltage or current) and reversibility of interconnected sources make it possible to apply a methodology for the synthesis of various types of converters.
Here the author presents the major types of components available, always from a user’s point of view, with the gate driv...
The reflection in terms of the optimization of data storage and processing speeds has recently led to new criteria for the functioning of electronic memories of the future. These memories, while consuming a very small amount of energy, should be able to ensure both archiving functions (data conservation over periods longer than 10 years) and be able to carry out logic operations at very high speed...
New Sensors and Processing Chain
Extracting information on a system is required to understand its state, to describe its behavior and to predict any early damage in order to be able to undertake the necessary corrective actions. The essential mechanism for data acquisition is the physical sensor, which can be electronic, chemical, biological, mechanical, acoustic, etc. For some years, the sensor environment has been changing. The...
Technology and Applications
We have now embraced the ‘Digital Age’, in which both our professional and leisure activities involve more and more communication devices, requiring displays of many types to play an increasing role. Within this context, a growing number of display types and sizes have emerged, currently generating a market in excess of $100 billion, which is in the same order of magnitude as that of the semicondu...
Wide Band Gap Semiconductor Nanowires for Optical Devices 1
Low-Dimensionality Related Effects and Growth
Over the last ten years, GaN and ZnO nanowires have emerged as potential building blocks for the next generation of optoelectronic devices including LEDs, lasers, UV photodetectors and solar cells. This has led to an increasing number of publications in the field, which now outnumbers 10,000. In view of this wealth of information, this two-volume series is intended to give a detailed status of the...
Uncertainty Theories and Multisensor Data Fusion
Combining multiple sensors in order to better grasp a tricky, or even critical, situation is an innate human reflex. Indeed, humans became aware, very early on, of the need to combine several of our senses so as to acquire a better understanding of our surroundings when major issues are at stake. On the basis of this need, we have naturally sought to equip ourselves with various kinds of artificia...
Design of Microwave Active Devices
This book presents methods for the design of the main microwave active devices.
The first chapter focuses on amplifiers working in the linear mode. The authors present the problems surrounding narrowband and wideband impedance matching, stability, polarization and the noise factor, as well as specific topologies such as the distributed amplifier and the differential amplifier.
Chapter 2 concerns...
Electromagnetic Compatibility in Power Electronics
The increasing demand for electrical energy in ground and air transport is leading to the extensive use of equipment based on power electronics. Progress in power semiconductors, the technology at the heart of these devices, has enabled us to greatly increase their energy density with an excellent yield. However, the wide dissemination of these technologies, and the rise in the frequency and speed...
Analysis and Modeling with SysML, UML and AADL
Since the construction of the first embedded system in the 1960s, embedded systems have continued to spread. They provide a continually increasing number of services and are part of our daily life. The development of these systems is a difficult problem which does not yet have a global solution. Another difficulty is that systems are plunged into the real world, which is not discrete (as is genera...
Chemistry in Microelectronics
Microelectronics is a complex world where many sciences need to collaborate to create nano-objects: we need expertise in electronics, microelectronics, physics, optics and mechanics also crossing into chemistry, electrochemistry, as well as biology, biochemistry and medicine. Chemistry is involved in many fields from materials, chemicals, gases, liquids or salts, the basics of reactions and equili...
Transmission Electron Microscopy in Micro-nanoelectronics
Today, the availability of bright and highly coherent electron sources and sensitive detectors has radically changed the type and quality of the information which can be obtained by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEMs are now present in large numbers not only in academia, but also in industrial research centers and fabs. This book presents in a simple and practical way the new quantitati...
Instrumentation and Metrology in Oceanography
After a definition of measured quantities and quantities inferred from calculations, this book details the functioning of sensors and instruments used to assess the useful parameters in oceanography: temperature, conductivity, pressure, sound velocity, current in magnitude and direction, time and position with global positioning systems, height of water and tide, waves, as well as optical and chem...
Energy Autonomous Micro and Nano Systems
Providing a detailed overview of the fundamentals and latest developments in the field of energy autonomous microsystems, this book delivers an in-depth study of the applications in the fields of health and usage monitoring in aeronautics, medical implants, and home automation, drawing out the main specifications on such systems. Introductory information on photovoltaic, thermal and mechanical en...
Chemical Sensors and Biosensors
Technological needs for chemical, ionic and biological species detection are giving rise to continuous research and development in physico-chemistry and biology. The constant progress being made in the theoretical and technological aspects concerning studies and developments of chemical sensors, biosensors and biochips is presented in this book by different scientists and professors from different...
Ferroelectric Dielectrics Integrated on Silicon
This book describes up-to-date technology applied to high-K materials for More Than Moore applications, i.e. microsystems applied to microelectronics core technologies.
After detailing the basic thermodynamic theory applied to high-K dielectrics thin films including extrinsic effects, this book emphasizes the specificity of thin films. Deposition and patterning technologies are then presented. A ...
Electromagnetic Reverberation Chambers
Dedicated to a complete presentation on all aspects of reverberation chambers, this book provides the physical principles behind these test systems in a very progressive manner. The detailed panorama of parameters governing the operation of electromagnetic reverberation chambers details various applications such as radiated immunity, emissivity, and shielding efficiency experiments.
In addition, ...
Ion Implantation and Thermal Treatment
This book has been written to provide newly arrived engineers in a silicon foundry environment with a comprehensive background in the fundamental physical and chemical basis for major front-end silicon treatments, such as oxidation, epitaxy, ion implantation and impurities diffusion, as well as giving a survey of the major types of equipment used in integrated circuit (IC) chip foundries.
This book aims at describing the wide variety of new technologies and concepts of non-standard antenna systems – reconfigurable, integrated, terahertz, deformable, ultra-wideband, systems using metamaterials, or MEMS, etc. – and how they open the way to a wide range of applications, from personal security and communications to multifunction radars and towed sonars, or satellite navigation systems,...
Power Electronic Converters
PWM Strategies and Current Control Techniques
The purpose of this book is to cover in detail the main pulse width modulation strategies and current control techniques for controlling power electronic controllers.
As well as an in-depth coverage of the reference case of a three phase AC motor fed by a voltage source inverter, this book also includes the control of both multiphase motors and multilevel inverters, the presentation of PWM over...
Handbook of Asynchronous Machine with Variable Speed
This handbook deals with the asynchronous machine in its close environment. It was born from a reflection on this electromagnetic converter whose integration in industrial environments is increasing.
Previously this type of motor operated at fixed speed, but recently it has been integrated more and more in processes at variable speed. For this reason it seemed useful, or necessary, to write a han...
Microwave Photonic Links
Components and Circuits
This book presents electrical system models for the different elements of a photonic microwave link such as lasers, external modulators, optical fibers, photodiodes and phototransistors.
The current and likely future trends for development of these components are also included: from lasers to VCSEL, external modulators to electro-absorption modulators, glass optical fibers to plastic optical fi...
Integration of Ferroelectric and Piezoelectric Thin Films
Concepts and Applications for Microsystems
This book contains all the necessary knowledge to enable a complete understanding of how piezoelectric and ferroelectric thin films work, providing the key to integrating them into Microsystems. Topics covered include: deposition methods, contamination, key processes, and characterization. The basic concepts are detailed within a framework of thermodynamics: ferro-para phase transition, strain-st...
Lithography is an extremely complex tool – based on the concept of “imprinting” an original template version onto mass output – originally using relatively simple optical exposure, masking, and etching techniques, and now extended to include exposure to X-rays, high energy UV light, and electron beams – in processes developed to manufacture everyday products including those in the realms of cons...
Increasingly faster, smaller and cheaper - these are the three key factors driving technologies that make up, and will continue to make up, the nano-world and all the products that are derived from it. Specifically, in the field of microelectronics, the self-fulfilling power of Moore’s Law has driven an amazing pace of technological advance in our ability to construct increasingly dense patterns o...
An electric drive that is designed or adapted to a specific application must take into account all the elements of the chain of constituent elements in its use and deployment. In addition to the motor, the transmission, power electronics, control, sensors, and electrical protection systems must be taken into account.
The motor and the transmission can be optimized and designed to obtain the best...
VHF / UHF Filters and Multicouplers
Applications of Air Resonators
This book describes the various devices used in radio communication and broadcasting to achieve high selectivity filtering and coupling.
After providing a background in the basics of microwave theory and more detailed material – including a special chapter on precision and errors in measurement – the reader will find detailed descriptions, manufacturing processes, and, for the most useful inst...
Chemical and Biological Microsensors
Applications in Liquid Media
This book reviews the state of art in the field of chemical sensors for analyses of ionic or molecular species dissolved in liquid media, mainly in aqueous solutions. The transduction of such devices is based on chemical, biological and physical phenomena. The fundamental phenomena involved in these sensors are described in the different chapters by specialists having a good expertise in the field...
Passive RF integrated circuits
modeling, characterization and measurement
This book, written by recognized experts in the field, is intended for designers of RF or microwave passive integrated circuits. It describes methods used for modeling passive circuits using the most common numerical analysis techniques (the method of moments, finite element methods, FDTD, TLM), and pays particular attention to propagation phenomena. Interconnections and packaging modeling are ...
Physics and Operation of Silicon Devices in Integrated Circuits
This book provides a comprehensive insight into the operation of the main microelectronic devices in silicon integrated circuits. It covers the physics of semiconductor materials, linking their basic properties to those of devices. The field effect transistor, a major component of modern integrated circuits, is given comprehensive coverage, including updated characteristics and future prospects. S...
Silicon Non-Volatile Memories
Paths of Innovation
Semiconductor flash memory is an indispensable component of modern electronic systems which has gained a strategic position in recent decades due to the progressive shift from computing to consumer (and particularly mobile) products as revenue drivers for Integrated Circuits (IC) companies. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the different technological approaches currently being studie...
Solid-State Physics for Electronics
This title is the result of many years’ experience in teaching at MSc level in applied, materials and electronic physics. It is written with device physics and electronics students in mind, and describes the fundamental physics of materials used in electronics. This thorough coverage of the physical properties of materials will facilitate an understanding of the technological processes used in the...
Optoelectronic sensors are of great importance in optoelectronic transmission systems. With this in mind, this book aims to provide accessible yet authoritative coverage of semiconductor-based photodetectors for various optical wavelengths.
Optoelectronic Sensors starts by explaining the main characteristics of all photodetectors, before moving on to cover the classical PIN photodiode, the avalan...
Power Electronics Semiconductor Devices
This book is dedicated to power electronics switches and their uses. It begins by dealing with power MOSFETs and IGBTs, including series and parallel associations. Discussion is given to silicon carbide, its potentiality for power electronics applications and its present limitations, as well as capacitors, key passive components in power electronics, followed by a modeling method enabling the comp...
The Finite Element Method for Electromagnetic Modeling
Written by specialists in the modeling of electromagnetism, this book provides a comprehensive review of the finite element method for low frequency applications. Fundamentals of the method as well as new advances in the field are described in detail. Static, magnetodynamic and fixed formulations are first covered, before the discussion moves on to different macroscopic behavior laws of materials ...
Modern Sensors Handbook
Modern sensors working on new principles and/or using new materials and technologies are more precise, faster, smaller, use less power and are cheaper. Given these advantages, it is vitally important for system developers, system integrators and decision makers to be familiar with the principles and properties of the new sensor types in order to make a qualified decision about which sensor type to...
Fundamentals of Instrumentation and Measurement
This title presents the general principles of instrumentation processes. It explains the theoretical analysis of physical phenomena used by standard sensors and transducers to transform a physical value into an electrical signal. The pre-processing of these signals through electronic circuits – amplification, signal filtering and analog-to-digital conversion – is then detailed, in order to provide...